Monday, August 12: Ailsa’s Travel Theme (Where’s my backpack?) for this week is architecture. I’ve been having a bit of a hard time with this one because it’s such a broad theme. As a matter of fact, I would say my entire trip through Spain and Portugal this summer was about the architecture (and the food!), so you could look at my entire travelogue to see some amazing architecture. For this challenge, I’m going to limit myself to three places, four photos. These are some of my favorites, but are of course not all-inclusive!
Wednesday, July 10: Oh! The Mezquita! I have seen many beautiful places on my holiday, but I don’t think anything equals this stunning mosque turned cathedral.
All day I have anticipated my first glimpse of the Mezquita, the mosque-slash-cathedral I have seen in hundreds of pictures over the years. I remember first seeing photographs in Art History class. Later, fascinated with its red and white striped horseshoe arches, I pored over more pictures. I read of its history.
Yet. Nothing has prepared me for my first encounter with this marvelous place.
We start in the Patio de los Naranjos with its beautiful orange trees. This was originally the mosque’s ablutions courtyard. A door leads from here to the prayer hall itself.
From the courtyard, we can see the Torre del Aminar, rising 93 meters. It is actually easily visible outside the courtyard from Cordoba’s streets. The Baroque-style bell tower was built over the mosque’s original minaret.
After walking through the courtyard, we pass through the entrance into the mosque.
When I walk inside and get my first glimpse of the dark forest of pillars and arches, I’m stopped in my tracks. I literally can’t breathe. And, as corny as it may sound, I am overcome with emotion. I can’t move; I don’t want to move. All I want to do is stand still and to soak up this moment. I feel flushed and choked-up. Tears come to my eyes. I can’t believe I am seeing this legendary place in person. I am here.
The red and white striped arches are in gloomy darkness near this entrance, but they stretch far ahead of me and to my right, in long aisles and rows, and I can see the ones in the distance are bathed in more light than these and I am astounded.
Nothing has prepared me for the immensity and the beauty of this place. It stretches a long way in all directions. It’s much more massive than I ever imagined. And those arches, the double horseshoe arches with their red and white blocks of stone, are like a medieval forest, one in which a person could get lost, and then found. By God, or Allah, or Christ, or some higher power that we humans try to understand with our study of religion, our worship, our moments of prayer and silence.
The Great Mosque ~ Aljama ~ of Cordoba, built during the period of Moorish occupation, is the most splendid Islamic monument in the western world. Its construction commenced in 785, when Abd-ar-Rahman established Cordoba as capital of al-Andalus, on the site of an ancient church dedicated to San Vicente. It was extended during successive periods by Abd-ar-Rahman II, Al-Hakam II and Almanzor.
The Mosque covers an area of 24,000 square meters and its interior is an authentic “forest” of columns and arches, wherein the exceptional and admirable Mihrab, boasting inscriptions of the Quran in gold and rich mosaics, represents the focal point.
The Great Mosque is a harmonious combination of various styles: the initial works of Abd-ar-Rahman I display Hispano-Visigothic influences, taking advantage of materials and columns gathered from other constructions.
The Mosque’s square ground-plan is composed of pillars of two-tiered semi-circular arches that serve to provide greater elevation to the roof, a sense of openness, structural support and enhanced lighting.
Later, Almanzor, emulating his predecessors, further extended the Great Mosque, and concluded construction of the monument. Since 1523 the Great Mosque has also housed a Christian Cathedral, constructed in the wake of the Reconquest along with the other side chapels. In the Cathedral, we can see an impressive High Altarpiece, the Baroque Altarpiece, the choir stalls worked in mahogany and the Treasures of the Cathedral, consisting of priceless jewels, including the particularly noteworthy Monstrance of Arfe. (Mezquita de Cordoba)
The approach to the Mihrab is marked by heavier, more ornate arches. Immediately in front of the mihrab is the maksura, the royal prayer enclosure, with its intricately interwoven arches and decorated domes created by Caliph Hakam II in the 960s. (Lonely Planet Spain)
The Mihrab portal incorporates 1600 kg of gold mosaic cubes, a gift from the Christian emperor of Byzantium, Nicephoras II Phocas. The mosaics give this part of the Mezquita the air of a Byzantine church. (Lonely Planet Spain)
I love it that Cordoba’s government, unlike many other governments in southern Spain, opted not to tear down the Mezquita after the Reconquest. When the bishops wanted to tear it down, according to our guide Barry, the government wouldn’t allow it. However, when the Bishops wanted to use it as a church, they were given permission to add the Cathedral right in the middle. I love the merging of religions in this place. This is the way it should be; people should be allowed to worship however they please, with no intolerance or prohibitions. As in the days when the Moors ruled, there should be religious tolerance; people of all faiths should be able to worship side by side and to celebrate their differences and commonalities.
It is close and damp in the Mezquita on this summer day in Cordoba. I walk around inside for a good long while and sit in various places, damp and sweating. I wonder if it might be cooler outside, where there may be a slight breeze. Once I go outside, I find it’s hotter outside than in, and I would have been better off staying inside. However, once I’ve left, there’s no way back in, as guards stand at the exit. Now I’m left to suffer the fierce sun.
Before we came here today, Barry told us a little history of Cordoba. His version goes something like this: Damascus was the head of the Islamic world. In Damascus, the Umayyads, the second of four Islamic caliphates that were established following the death of Mohammed, were the clan that held the title of caliph. In the Muslim conquests, the Umayyads incorporated the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sind, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles (15,000,000 km2), making it the largest empire the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest to ever exist.
In 730, 100 years after the death of Mohammed, there was an uprising in Damascus and the Umayyads were kicked out. The Caliph had to flee. They planned to take control and chose Cordoba to be the center of the Islamic World. According to Barry, the prayer wall in the Mezquita doesn’t align to Mecca because the Caliphs wanted Cordoba to be the center.
The Caliphs picked a reasonable Christian cathedral built by the Visigoths and bought it from the Christian bishops. Both Christians and Muslims used it for about 30 years. Then the Christians decided they wanted their own place to worship. The Caliphs started developing the Mezquita over three generations, from 730-1030.
Cordoba was a city of enlightenment during the Dark Ages in Europe. There was acceptance and tolerance of people’s differences. According to Lonely Planet Spain, the biggest city in Western Europe had dazzling mosques, libraries, observatories and aqueducts, a university and skilled artisans in textiles, leather, metal and glazed tiles. Arab, Christian and Jewish scholars frequented the multicultural court. According to Barry, a property survey was done in London in the year 1000 which found three public baths in London, while in Cordoba, there were over 1,000.
In 1030, there was a popular uprising and the Umayyads asked the Berbers to help out as mercenaries. The Berbers ended up throwing the Umayyads out. Three different North African dynasties took over Cordoba, then they returned to Africa. The North African Muslims were fairly fanatical and not tolerant.
In 1236, Cordoba was captured by Fernando III of Castilla and the once great town began to lose importance.
Later, after stopping for a cool drink on yet another hot day in southern Spain, I cross over the Puente Romano Bridge, a reminder that Cordoba was the capital of the Roman empire in the Iberian Peninsula. From the bridge, I can look back and see the Mezquita as I leave it behind. I can also see the green murky waters of the Rio Guadalquivir.
I arrive at our meeting spot with Scottish Barry before we are due back and before Carole and Barry return, so I go inside a little shop for a drink of sparkling water and a nata con galletas de chocolate gelato.
On our drive back to Mollina, we marvel again at the beautiful Spanish countryside, with its neatly organized and manicured fields of grains and sunflowers and grapevines. Carole still has leftovers of the sweet anise bread she bought in Ronda, produced by Dulces Artesanales. We munch happily on that in the car despite my having just polished off a cone of gelato. 🙂
When we return to the villa in Mollina, I chat on Skype with my friend Jayne in California, eat a sandwich and take a dip in the pool with Carole. Oh, life is so good here. 🙂
Wednesday, July 10: After visiting the Alcazar, we wander through the Juderia visiting the old Jewish Market & the Synagogue.
Jews were once prominent citizens of Islamic Cordoba. The medieval Juderia is a winding maze of streets with whitewashed buildings and pretty flower boxes.
We stop to rub the feet of a statue that is said to give good luck.
The synagogue was built in Mudejar style and consists of a courtyard, accessed from the street, which leads to a hallway, followed by the prayer room. On the eastern side of the hall is a staircase that leads to the women’s gallery. The gallery overlooks the prayer room through three decorative arches.
The synagogue, built in 1315, is one of only three surviving medieval synagogues in Spain and the only one in Andalucía after the Jews were expelled in 1492.
In 1492, it was used as the St. Quiteria hermitage and the house as a hospital for hydrophobic people (people with an irrational fear of water, usually as a result of rabies). A priest discovered its plasterwork on the walls in 1884, when part of the mortar walls fell down.
We wander through another pretty little courtyard.
We then walk into the stunning St. Bartholomew Chapel, a historical and artistic monument dating from 1391. It acquired the rank of parish very soon after it was built until the 17th century.
Then we head to the Bodega Mezquita for a fabulous tapas lunch. I love the posters on the walls of the restaurant.
We share Salmorejo: cold smooth tomato-based cream with emulsified olive oil, Iberian ham and boiled egg garnish.
We also share: Mozarabic meatballs in almond and saffron sauce; homemade oxtail croquettes; Al-Andalus chicken tagine with vegetarian couscous and nuts; and baby broad beans and Serrano ham sauteed with egg and oil with a touch of mint. I don’t share the stewed pork cheeks with sauce, but the others seem to enjoy.
The food is so delicious!!! I savor every little morsel. I especially love the meatballs and the baby broad beans. I wish I could eat like this all the time. 🙂
Before we leave the restaurant, I make a stop in the ladies’ room.
Finally, after lunch we head to the famous Mezquita, but on the way we stop to admire some pretty flower-lined alleys.
Then on to Cordoba’s stunning Mezquita, probably my favorite historical place on my whole trip. 🙂
Wednesday, July 10: The Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos (Spanish for “Alcázar of the Christian Monarchs”), also known as the Alcázar of Córdoba, takes its name from the Arabic word القصر (Al-Qasr, meaning “the Palace”). The fortress was one of the primary residences for the Christian Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand.
It is designed in the Mudéjar style, which is a fusion of Moorish and Christian Gothic, and was the scene of famous historic events including the planning of the voyage of Columbus.
In 1236, Christian forces took Córdoba during the Reconquista. In 1328, Alfonso XI of Castile began building the present day structure on part of the site for the old fortress. Other parts of the Moorish Alcázar had been given as spoils to the bishop and nobles. Alfonso’s structure retained only part of the Moorish ruins but the structure appears Islamic since Alfonso used the Mudéjar style.
Isabella and Ferdinand used the Alcázar for one of the first permanent tribunals of the Spanish Inquisition and as a headquarters for their campaign against the Nasrid dynasty in Granada, the last remaining Moorish kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula. The Inquisition began using the Alcázar as one of its headquarters in 1482, converting much of it, including the Arab baths, into torture and interrogation chambers. The Inquisition maintained a tribunal here for three centuries.
Isabella and Ferdinand’s campaign against Granada succeeded in 1492. The same year, the monarchs met Christopher Columbus in the Alcázar as he prepared to take his first voyage to the Americas.
The Alcázar served as a garrison for Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in 1810. In 1821, the Alcázar became a prison. Finally, the Spanish government made the Alcázar a tourist attraction and national monument in the 1950s. (Wikipedia: Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos)
It’s amazing to stroll around the grounds of such a place and think of the history that happened here. Today, the place is swarming with tourists, but centuries ago, huge decisions were being made by Christian Kings and Queens about ridding the Iberian Peninsula of Muslims and other non-believers and about discovering riches in new lands.
I loved the Alcazar in Seville, but the heat on the day I visited was enough to put a damper on my enthusiasm. This place with its long pools and gentle and soothing fountains, and numerous shade trees, is much more pleasant. I’d say that this Alcazar, though it lacks the beautiful Islamic arches that Seville’s Alcazar has in abundance, is a very pleasing place indeed.
Wednesday, July 10: We head straight for Córdoba this morning and into the pretty Barrio San Basilio. Barry tells us about the annual May patio competition in the city and we pop in to see one of the typical patios that Cordoba is famous for. Barry says that the Battle of the Patios sells over a million tickets annually for entrance to 28 patios. Most Spanish houses look plain from the street, but have internal patios which are often decked out lavishly in plants and flowers.
He also points out the iron bars that we see on windows all over Spain, called rejas, which were put on windows by the Moors to keep their women safe inside and to keep rogue males out. Says Barry, “These are the guys who had eunuchs to guard their women.” The bars continue to be used today for security purposes and for decoration. Barry says most Spaniards continue to use them so they can leave their windows open during their afternoon siesta without having to worry about being robbed.
Every spring Córdoba has special festivities for the month of May. Starting off with a parade known as the “Battle of the Flowers,” the city officially launches into its spring celebrations with the May Crosses festival, usually taking place during the first week of the month, followed by the Patio Contests that can easily continue well past the middle of the month.
The Patio Contests is sponsored by the Córdoba City Hall and began in 1918.
Due to a hot, dry climate, homes in Córdoba were built with a central patio even back in the days of the Romans. This tradition was continued by the Moors and persists in many homes even today. Filling the central patio with plants and water features has always been a way to keep local homes cool. But, thanks to human creativity and ingenuity, patio decoration ended up taking on a life all its own and at some point, someone realized that these hidden treasures were just too good to be kept tucked away behind heavy doors and iron grates. So, once a year, the doors open and everyone is invited in to see the wonders of Córdoba’s patios.
The first examples of courtyard houses date from 3200 BC with the creation of the first walled city-states in Mesopotamia. With the Greco-Roman culture, the courtyard became the most prominent feature of the house.
In Greek times, buildings had a courtyard surrounded by a columned portico, situated far from the entrance and used for recreational and social purposes. When the Arabs came to Spain, water in the courtyard took on a new importance.
After the Reconquest, Christian and Muslim style converged in the Mudejar style. During this time, the upper parts of the courtyard houses were occupied by nobles and the lower part by servants.
In the 16th century, a concern for beautifying facades evolved, especially in palaces with inner courtyards. In the 17th century, the Baroque style came into play, which called for enhanced facades and wider doors. Finally, in the 19th and 20th centuries, Neoclassicism was adopted for facades and interiors and wooden doors were replaced by wrought iron bars or gates.
The Alcazar Viejo neighborhood, where this courtyard is located, emerged in the 14th century after the Alcazar de los Reyes Cristianos was constructed. This 16th century courtyard house was used by servants and workers for the Alcazar. Each family occupied one room. The upper floors and those closer to the street were for wealthier and higher social status tenants, while the remote rooms were used by those who were economically disadvantaged. All the doors and windows face the courtyard, a typical feature of this collective housing.
The courtyard was the central part of the house where daily life took place. The kitchen is to the left of the staircase and the washing area, the well for drinking water, and the toilets are there so they can be used by all the neighbors.
Residents decorated with flower pots and ornamental trees, bringing color and freshness to the hot climate of Cordoba. Jasmine, Queen of the Night (night-blooming cestrum) and Bougainvillea flank the arches on the right. Blue pots with geraniums and pelargonium are on the walls.
Aspidistra, ferns, violas, Dianthus, Schefflera and Hydrangea are also on the floor and in the flower beds. Cinnamon Laurel, Lemon Verbena, Cyclamen, Surfinia Petunia, Fuchsias and other aromatic plants add flavor and color.
Besides the plants, other decorative elements include posters of bullfights, photos of Cordoba characters, details of paintings by Julio Romero de Torres, tiles of San Rafael, custodian of Cordoba, and the Virgin de los Dolores, and old domestic tools and pottery.
We’re offered a glass of Spanish wine for a 1 euro donation. It’s a little early to be drinking, but Carole and I both have a small glass.
These patios not only offer a visual feast of colorful flowers, stone mosaics and ceramic decorations, but also bring out the classic scents of Córdoba: jasmine and orange blossom mixed with a myriad of scents from the many other flowers and plants that bring the city – and this festival – alive (andalucia.com: Cordoba City patios).
We walk through the street of Córdoba, marveling at the beautiful windows and the whitewashed buildings. Spanish towns seem so pristine and clean.
We find one house that has numerous plaques showing it has won the patio contest many times. Sadly, the patio is closed so we can’t see what is so wondrous about it.
We make our way to the Royal Stables, which showcases some of the famous Andalucían horses in a lovely set of buildings. Sadly today we can’t see them up close because they’re doing some work on the stables and watering down the dirt courtyard.
The Royal Stables were built by order of Philip II in 1570 on part of the site of the city’s Alcázar fortress. In fact, it shares a distinct military character with the royal fortification.
With these facilities the King intended to create purebred Spanish horses. This was the place where the Spanish –or Andalusian– horse was first bred from Arab stock. The main section, with a roof in the form of a cross vault supported on sandstone columns, is divided into small stables or boxes (spain.info: Cordoba Royal Stables).
Since I can only see the rump of a horse, and the backside of another horse in the distance, I focus on the flowers instead.
Tuesday, June 11: I’ve planned my time in Spain, but, so far, I haven’t even begun to think of Portugal. I know I better start thinking about it soon because I have to fly out of Lisbon on July 25.
Here’s my itinerary so far.
June 28-July 3: Barcelona, Spain, including Montserrat. I’m staying at BCN Fashion House: (bcn fashion house)
I decided to skip Madrid altogether.
July 3-6: Toledo, Spain. I’ll be staying at La Posada de Manolo. Last summer when I was traveling in Greece, I met an inspiring South African lady, Marie-Claire. She had come to Greece after traveling all over Europe, but especially in Spain and Portugal. She highly recommended I stay more than one day in Toledo. Since I have a small group tour lined up in Andalucia from July 6-12, I booked 3 days/4 nights in Toledo.
Meet at Malaga Airport and subject to arrival time, spend a few hours in Mijas, a lovely mountain village overlooking the Mediterranean, then travel and check in to the Villa.
Breakfast and travel to Seville. Visit the Santa Maria Park to see the amazing Plaza Espana, the site of the American Exhibition of 1929. Walk from the park past some of Seville’s most historic buildings to the Barrio Santa Cruz. Wander through the narrow lanes of the Barrio and take a delicious tapas lunch ‘Seville style’ in one of the lovely small Plazas. In the afternoon visit the largest Cathedral in the world followed by the fabulous Alcazar, one of the oldest Royal Palaces in Europe. An elegant City, Seville was once one of the wealthiest in Europe.
Breakfast and travel to Ronda. One the way, we stop at the historic site of Teba Castle, scene of a famous battle with the Moors. In Ronda we walk you into the town and leave you by the magnificent bridge over the gorge to explore and sightsee on your own. Maybe take a ride around the old town in horse-drawn carriages and wonder at the sheer magnificence of the town perched along the cliff top of the Tajo gorge. Wander through the elegant narrow streets of the old town and visit some of the magnificent houses and the museum of Ronda. Visit the famous Ronda bullring home of the Matador and the oldest in Spain, now a museum.
Breakfast and travel to Malaga. On the way we visit the spectacular El Torcal National Park. Set high in the mountains there is a 45 minute walk through the amazing limestone formations. Arriving in Malaga at lunch hour we go to one of the great value seafood Chiringuitos by the sea. Sample fantastic sardines barbequed on an olive wood fire next to the Mediterranean. We take you into the centre of Malaga near the Cathedral and leave you to explore the town, maybe visiting the magnificent Cathedral, the large Moorish Alcazaba and Roman Theatre. And don’t forget the Picasso Museum since Picasso was born locally and his parents’ house is now the Picasso Foundation and open for visits.
Breakfast and travel to Cordoba. We walk through the old City Walls and into the pretty Barrio San Basilio and see one of the typical patios that Cordoba is famous for. The Royal Stables shows us some of the famous Andalucian horses in a lovely set of buildings. Onto the Christian Alcazar, nowhere near as grand as Seville, but designed in the Mudajar style, a fusion of Moorish and Christian Gothic and the scene of famous historic events including the planning of the voyage of Columbus. The 1,000 year old Arab baths built for the Caliphs remind us of a society long gone and we wander through the Juderia visiting the old Jewish Market & the Synagogue. A great tapas lunch in the Bodega Mesquita followed by the highlight of the day, the spectacular Mesquita, the greatest Mosque in the Western World and the only one with a Cathedral right in the centre of it. The famous Puente Romano bridge awaits demonstrating why Cordoba was the capital of the Roman empire in the Iberian Peninsula.
Breakfast and travel to Granada. Normally the highlight of our tour, we walk into the Bib Rambla, part of the old Silk Market and now the Flower Market of Granada. Here we suggest you sample some of the best Chocolate and Churros in Andalucia. Walking through the square we pass the Bishops Palace and walk into the Alcaiceria, the well-preserved old silk market. The Royal Chapel, commissioned as the burial site for the famous ‘Catholic Monarchs’ Ferdinand and Isabella, is now a museum and worth a visit. The beautiful Cathedral is one of the lightest inside that you will see. Have a light lunch and then we drive up to the Alhambra to spend a few hours wandering the gardens and buildings before entering the amazing Nasrid Palaces. After the visit we drive around the City and up to the top of the atmospheric Albaycin where we have dinner at Jardines de Zoraya who host an excellent Flamenco performance with local talented young musicians and dancers. A five-minute ‘after dinner’ walk takes us to the viewing point at San Nichols where we see the beauty of the Alhambra lit up at night set against the backdrop of the Sierra Nevada mountains.
Breakfast and, subject to departure flight times, we visit the historic City of Antequera, home of the impressive 5,000 year old Dolmens and the first Alcazaba to fall in the reconquest of the kingdom of Granada. Return to Malaga Airport.
July 12-14: After my tour, I’ve been invited to spend two nights with Marianne, and her husband, of East of Málaga …. and more!. She lives in the countryside (el campo), in a beautiful area east of Málaga, known as La Axarquía. I’m really excited to meet a fellow blogger who now makes her home in the south of Spain.
July 14-25: Heading to Portugal. I think I will try to rent a car in Malaga and just take off toward Portugal, ending up my last four nights around Lisbon. While in Lisbon, I want to go to Obidos and Sintra, both highly recommended by my friend and fellow traveler, Marie-Claire. I also want to explore the Alfama in Lisbon. No specific plans for Portugal yet, but I’m sure I’ll come up with something before I leave Oman. 🙂